Experian AutoCheck Report

Report run: 05/24/2024 09:30:31 EDT
This report is brought to you by:
Auto Plaza Chrysler Dodge Jeep Ram Elite Member
12830 Highway 21 De Soto, MO 63020
636.337.7777
Owners - 5
Number of Owners
Vehicle Usage
Personal
AutoCheck Score
Autocheck score dial
41
51
69
AutoCheck Score

Similar vehicles usually range between 51 and 69

Vehicle History at a Glance
vhg-title-brand-no-issue

State Title Brand

auction brand icon

Auction Brand / Issues

vhg-accident-damage-issue-found

Accident / Damage

recall check icon

Open Recall Check

vhg-insurance-loss-title-no-issue

Insurance Loss / Transfer

vhg-odometer-check-issue-found

Odometer Check

Last reported odometer:
61,678 (06/23/2022)

cpo icon

Certified Pre-Owned

service repair icon

Service / Repair

20 Service Record(s) Reported

vhg-additional-history-issue-found

Additional History

Lien Reported, Duplicate Title

vhg-title-brand-no-issue

This vehicle is eligible for Buyback Protection

Due to the vehicle’s history showing no reported major state title brands. Terms & Conditions
damage icon Accident & Damage
accident-car-outline poipoipoipoi
accident-airbag-deployed-off Airbag Deployed
accident-structural-damage-off Structural Damage
accident-overturned-off Overturned
accident-severe-on Moderate
Damage Date Damage Type Severity
04/01/2011 Collision Unknown
09/27/2017 Collision Moderate

Not all accidents and/or damage events are reported to Experian. Inspection by a third party prior to purchase is recommended. See Detailed Vehicle History for more information regarding accident/damage events.

Odometer Dial Odometer Check
icon-alert
Problem Reported
One or more odometer problems have been reported to AutoCheck by the state Division of Motor Vehicles (DMV) or auction sources OR there is a potential odometer discrepancy when AutoCheck examined the sequence of reported odometer readings.
icon-success-pass
State Title Odometer Check

No issues reported

icon-success-pass
Auction Odometer Check

No issues reported

icon-alert
Odometer Calculation Check

Based on proprietary calculation of reported odometer readings, there is potential indication of odometer rollback or tampering.

Detailed Vehicle History Icon Detailed Vehicle History
Below are the historical events for this vehicle listed in chronological order.
Vehicle: 2008 Chevrolet Corvette 427 Limited Edition Z06 / Z06 (1G1YY26E085107681) Report Run Date: 05/24/2024 09:30:31 EDT
 
 
2007
 
 
Location: MO
Owned From: 12/2007
Usage: Personal
Event Date Location Odometer Data Source Details
12/04/2007 CHESTERFIELD, MO Motor Vehicle Dept. Registration Event/Renewal
12/05/2007 CHESTERFIELD, MO 8 Motor Vehicle Dept. Title(Lien Reported)
12/26/2007 BALLWIN, MO 899 Elco Chevrolet Inc   
636.227.5333
Vehicle Serviced
06/27/2009 BALLWIN, MO 5,514 Elco Chevrolet Inc   
636.227.5333
Recommended Maintenance Performed
03/24/2010 CHESTERFIELD, MO Motor Vehicle Dept. Registration Event/Renewal
08/02/2010 BALLWIN, MO 5,829 Elco Chevrolet Inc   
636.227.5333
Recommended Maintenance Performed
04/01/2011 AZ State Agency Collision with Another Vehicle(Case #:2437363)
dvh-timeline-icon-accident-orange.svg
01/25/2012 CHESTERFIELD, MO Motor Vehicle Dept. Registration Event/Renewal
02/19/2013 BALLWIN, MO 22,295 Elco Chevrolet Inc   
636.227.5333
Vehicle Serviced
02/25/2013 BALLWIN, MO 22,972 Elco Chevrolet Inc   
636.227.5333
Vehicle Serviced
 
 
2013
 
 
Location: MO
Owned From: 05/2013
Usage: Personal
Event Date Location Odometer Data Source Details
05/28/2013 ARNOLD, MO Motor Vehicle Dept. Registration Event/Renewal
05/31/2013 ARNOLD, MO 22,210 Motor Vehicle Dept. Title(Lien Reported) dvh-timeline-icon-orange-odometer.svg
08/30/2013 BALLWIN, MO 27,219 Elco Chevrolet Inc   
636.227.5333
Recommended Maintenance Performed
09/19/2013 BALLWIN, MO 27,649 Elco Chevrolet Inc   
636.227.5333
Transmission Serviced
05/27/2014 BALLWIN, MO 33,739 Elco Chevrolet Inc   
636.227.5333
Vehicle Serviced
06/13/2014 BALLWIN, MO 34,013 Elco Chevrolet Inc   
636.227.5333
Electrical System Serviced
06/26/2014 ARNOLD, MO Motor Vehicle Dept. Registration Event/Renewal
04/27/2015 BALLWIN, MO 40,058 Elco Chevrolet Inc   
636.227.5333
Recommended Maintenance Performed
06/25/2015 BALLWIN, MO 40,786 Elco Chevrolet Inc   
636.227.5333
Vehicle Inspected
 
 
2015
 
 
Location: MO
Owned From: 07/2015
Usage: Personal
Event Date Location Odometer Data Source Details
07/28/2015 O FALLON, MO Motor Vehicle Dept. Registration Event/Renewal
07/30/2015 O FALLON, MO 40,790 Motor Vehicle Dept. Title(Lien Reported)
09/11/2015 BALLWIN, MO 43,583 Elco Chevrolet Inc   
636.227.5333
Electrical System Serviced
01/26/2016 BALLWIN, MO 45,723 Elco Chevrolet Inc   
636.227.5333
Heat or Air Conditioning Serviced
Recommended Maintenance Performed
Vehicle Inspected
Brakes Serviced
08/01/2016 O FALLON, MO Motor Vehicle Dept. Registration Event/Renewal
09/08/2016 BALLWIN, MO 51,319 Elco Chevrolet Inc   
636.227.5333
Maintenance Performed
Recommended Maintenance Performed
Vehicle Inspected
Electrical System Serviced
02/28/2017 BALLWIN, MO 55,671 Elco Chevrolet Inc   
636.227.5333
Cooling System Serviced
Fuel System Serviced
Recommended Maintenance Performed
Vehicle Inspected
Brakes Serviced
09/27/2017 SAINT CHARLES, MO State Agency Rear Impact with Another Vehicle(Case #:2170053290)
Right Rear Impact Collision(Report #:L17008648)
dvh-timeline-icon-accident-orange.svg
10/04/2017 SAINT CHARLES, MO Damage Report Accident or Damage Reported
Moderate Damage Reported
Left Side Damage or Repair Reported
Right Side Damage or Repair Reported
Rear Damage or Repair Reported
Damage or Repair to Bumper Reported
Damage or Repair to Wheels Reported
Damage or Repair to Quarter Panel Reported
Damage or Repair to Windshield Reported
06/06/2018 BALLWIN, MO 59,894 Elco Chevrolet Inc   
636.227.5333
Exterior Lights Serviced
Alignment Serviced
Accessories Serviced or Installed
Engine Serviced
Recommended Maintenance Performed
Vehicle Inspected
Tires or Wheels Service Performed
07/02/2018 LAKE SAINT LOUIS, MO 60,074 Motor Vehicle Dept. Passed Emission Inspection
07/26/2018 LAKE SAINT LOUIS, MO Motor Vehicle Dept. Registration Event/Renewal
07/25/2019 BALLWIN, MO 60,592 Elco Chevrolet Inc   
636.227.5333
Recommended Maintenance Performed
Vehicle Inspected
Differential Serviced
Electrical System Serviced
08/06/2020 LAKE SAINT LOUIS, MO Motor Vehicle Dept. Registration Event/Renewal
06/23/2022 BALLWIN, MO 61,678 Service Record Steering System Serviced
Safety Inspection Performed
Emission System Serviced
Multiple Point Vehicle Inspection
Engine Serviced
06/23/2022 BALLWIN, MO 61,678 Elco Chevrolet Inc   
636.227.5333
Recommended Maintenance Performed
Vehicle Inspected
06/23/2022 BALLWIN, MO Service Record Drive Line Serviced
Lube, Oil And/Or Filter Changed
09/01/2022 LAKE SAINT LOUIS, MO Motor Vehicle Dept. Registration Event/Renewal
02/20/2024 LAKE SAINT LOUIS, MO Motor Vehicle Dept. Title(Lien Reported)
Duplicate Title(Lien Reported)
 
 
2024
 
 
Location: MO
Owned From: 04/2024
Usage: Personal
Event Date Location Odometer Data Source Details
04/09/2024 SAINTE GENEVIEVE, MO Motor Vehicle Dept. Title
Excluded/Exempt
 
 
2024
 
 
Location: MO
Owned From: 04/2024
Usage: Personal
Event Date Location Odometer Data Source Details
04/23/2024 SAINTE GENEVIEVE, MO Motor Vehicle Dept. Registration Event/Renewal
Excluded/Exempt
 
2007
 
 
 

Location: MO
Owned From: 12/2007
Usage: Personal

Event Date - 12/04/2007

Location - CHESTERFIELD, MO

Data Source - Motor Vehicle Dept.

Details - Registration Event/Renewal

Event Date - 12/05/2007

Location - CHESTERFIELD, MO

Odometer - 8

Data Source - Motor Vehicle Dept.

Details - Title(Lien Reported)

Event Date - 12/26/2007

Location - BALLWIN, MO

Odometer - 899

Data Source - Elco Chevrolet Inc    636.227.5333

Details - Vehicle Serviced

Event Date - 06/27/2009

Location - BALLWIN, MO

Odometer - 5,514

Data Source - Elco Chevrolet Inc    636.227.5333

Details - Recommended Maintenance Performed

Event Date - 03/24/2010

Location - CHESTERFIELD, MO

Data Source - Motor Vehicle Dept.

Details - Registration Event/Renewal

Event Date - 08/02/2010

Location - BALLWIN, MO

Odometer - 5,829

Data Source - Elco Chevrolet Inc    636.227.5333

Details - Recommended Maintenance Performed

Event Date - 04/01/2011 dvh-timeline-icon-accident-orange.svg

Location - AZ

Data Source - State Agency

Details - Collision with Another Vehicle(Case #:2437363)

Event Date - 01/25/2012

Location - CHESTERFIELD, MO

Data Source - Motor Vehicle Dept.

Details - Registration Event/Renewal

Event Date - 02/19/2013

Location - BALLWIN, MO

Odometer - 22,295

Data Source - Elco Chevrolet Inc    636.227.5333

Details - Vehicle Serviced

Event Date - 02/25/2013

Location - BALLWIN, MO

Odometer - 22,972

Data Source - Elco Chevrolet Inc    636.227.5333

Details - Vehicle Serviced

 
 
 
2013
 
 
 

Location: MO
Owned From: 05/2013
Usage: Personal

Event Date - 05/28/2013

Location - ARNOLD, MO

Data Source - Motor Vehicle Dept.

Details - Registration Event/Renewal

Event Date - 05/31/2013 dvh-timeline-icon-orange-odometer.svg

Location - ARNOLD, MO

Odometer - 22,210

Data Source - Motor Vehicle Dept.

Details - Title(Lien Reported)

Event Date - 08/30/2013

Location - BALLWIN, MO

Odometer - 27,219

Data Source - Elco Chevrolet Inc    636.227.5333

Details - Recommended Maintenance Performed

Event Date - 09/19/2013

Location - BALLWIN, MO

Odometer - 27,649

Data Source - Elco Chevrolet Inc    636.227.5333

Details - Transmission Serviced

Event Date - 05/27/2014

Location - BALLWIN, MO

Odometer - 33,739

Data Source - Elco Chevrolet Inc    636.227.5333

Details - Vehicle Serviced

Event Date - 06/13/2014

Location - BALLWIN, MO

Odometer - 34,013

Data Source - Elco Chevrolet Inc    636.227.5333

Details - Electrical System Serviced

Event Date - 06/26/2014

Location - ARNOLD, MO

Data Source - Motor Vehicle Dept.

Details - Registration Event/Renewal

Event Date - 04/27/2015

Location - BALLWIN, MO

Odometer - 40,058

Data Source - Elco Chevrolet Inc    636.227.5333

Details - Recommended Maintenance Performed

Event Date - 06/25/2015

Location - BALLWIN, MO

Odometer - 40,786

Data Source - Elco Chevrolet Inc    636.227.5333

Details - Vehicle Inspected

 
 
 
2015
 
 
 

Location: MO
Owned From: 07/2015
Usage: Personal

Event Date - 07/28/2015

Location - O FALLON, MO

Data Source - Motor Vehicle Dept.

Details - Registration Event/Renewal

Event Date - 07/30/2015

Location - O FALLON, MO

Odometer - 40,790

Data Source - Motor Vehicle Dept.

Details - Title(Lien Reported)

Event Date - 09/11/2015

Location - BALLWIN, MO

Odometer - 43,583

Data Source - Elco Chevrolet Inc    636.227.5333

Details - Electrical System Serviced

Event Date - 01/26/2016

Location - BALLWIN, MO

Odometer - 45,723

Data Source - Elco Chevrolet Inc    636.227.5333

Details - Heat or Air Conditioning Serviced
Recommended Maintenance Performed
Vehicle Inspected
Brakes Serviced

Event Date - 08/01/2016

Location - O FALLON, MO

Data Source - Motor Vehicle Dept.

Details - Registration Event/Renewal

Event Date - 09/08/2016

Location - BALLWIN, MO

Odometer - 51,319

Data Source - Elco Chevrolet Inc    636.227.5333

Details - Maintenance Performed
Recommended Maintenance Performed
Vehicle Inspected
Electrical System Serviced

Event Date - 02/28/2017

Location - BALLWIN, MO

Odometer - 55,671

Data Source - Elco Chevrolet Inc    636.227.5333

Details - Cooling System Serviced
Fuel System Serviced
Recommended Maintenance Performed
Vehicle Inspected
Brakes Serviced

Event Date - 09/27/2017 dvh-timeline-icon-accident-orange.svg

Location - SAINT CHARLES, MO

Data Source - State Agency

Details - Rear Impact with Another Vehicle(Case #:2170053290)
Right Rear Impact Collision(Report #:L17008648)

Event Date - 10/04/2017

Location - SAINT CHARLES, MO

Data Source - Damage Report

Details - Accident or Damage Reported
Moderate Damage Reported
Left Side Damage or Repair Reported
Right Side Damage or Repair Reported
Rear Damage or Repair Reported
Damage or Repair to Bumper Reported
Damage or Repair to Wheels Reported
Damage or Repair to Quarter Panel Reported
Damage or Repair to Windshield Reported

Event Date - 06/06/2018

Location - BALLWIN, MO

Odometer - 59,894

Data Source - Elco Chevrolet Inc    636.227.5333

Details - Exterior Lights Serviced
Alignment Serviced
Accessories Serviced or Installed
Engine Serviced
Recommended Maintenance Performed
Vehicle Inspected
Tires or Wheels Service Performed

Event Date - 07/02/2018

Location - LAKE SAINT LOUIS, MO

Odometer - 60,074

Data Source - Motor Vehicle Dept.

Details - Passed Emission Inspection

Event Date - 07/26/2018

Location - LAKE SAINT LOUIS, MO

Data Source - Motor Vehicle Dept.

Details - Registration Event/Renewal

Event Date - 07/25/2019

Location - BALLWIN, MO

Odometer - 60,592

Data Source - Elco Chevrolet Inc    636.227.5333

Details - Recommended Maintenance Performed
Vehicle Inspected
Differential Serviced
Electrical System Serviced

Event Date - 08/06/2020

Location - LAKE SAINT LOUIS, MO

Data Source - Motor Vehicle Dept.

Details - Registration Event/Renewal

Event Date - 06/23/2022

Location - BALLWIN, MO

Odometer - 61,678

Data Source - Service Record

Details - Steering System Serviced
Safety Inspection Performed
Emission System Serviced
Multiple Point Vehicle Inspection
Engine Serviced

Event Date - 06/23/2022

Location - BALLWIN, MO

Odometer - 61,678

Data Source - Elco Chevrolet Inc    636.227.5333

Details - Recommended Maintenance Performed
Vehicle Inspected

Event Date - 06/23/2022

Location - BALLWIN, MO

Data Source - Service Record

Details - Drive Line Serviced
Lube, Oil And/Or Filter Changed

Event Date - 09/01/2022

Location - LAKE SAINT LOUIS, MO

Data Source - Motor Vehicle Dept.

Details - Registration Event/Renewal

Event Date - 02/20/2024

Location - LAKE SAINT LOUIS, MO

Data Source - Motor Vehicle Dept.

Details - Title(Lien Reported)
Duplicate Title(Lien Reported)

 
 
 
2024
 
 
 

Location: MO
Owned From: 04/2024
Usage: Personal

Event Date - 04/09/2024

Location - SAINTE GENEVIEVE, MO

Data Source - Motor Vehicle Dept.

Details - Title
Excluded/Exempt

 
 
 
2024
 
 
 

Location: MO
Owned From: 04/2024
Usage: Personal

Event Date - 04/23/2024

Location - SAINTE GENEVIEVE, MO

Data Source - Motor Vehicle Dept.

Details - Registration Event/Renewal
Excluded/Exempt

This Vehicle's Glossary

More information is available in the full AutoCheck glossary.

Term
Section Location
Definition
State Title Brand
Vehicle History at a Glance
A "branded title" is an official designation assigned by a state agency to associate a particular history with a vehicle. The branding system was put in place to warn potential owners about damage or other alterations to a vehicle that they might otherwise have been unaware of. The brands checked in this section are Fire, Hail, Flood, Junk/Scrapped, Lemon, Salvage, Rebuilt/Rebuildable, Odometer Brands (not actual miles, broken odometer, exceeding mechanical limits, mileage discrepancy, or suspect miles). Please note Grey Market and Insurance Loss or Theft brands are not checked in this box and can be found on other corresponding boxes.
Auction Issue
Vehicle History at a Glance
This section summarizes any issues if reported such as damage condition from seller's disclosure or during the inspection process including required structural damage disclosure, title brands, odometer issues, etc. as outlined by the 2023 National Auto Auction Association Policy.
Accident/Damage Check
Vehicle History at a Glance
This section summarizes vehicle history events that may indicate an accident or damage and associated details such as point of impact, severity or airbag deployed if provided. These damage events will include collision damage information, police-reported accidents, salvage auction, recycler records, crash test vehicles, collision damage claims etc. including our exclusive auction announcements from two major auctions that may include damage events. There is also a clearly delineated section that includes non-collision damage events such as fire, hail or flood. Damage-indicated title brands will be in the state title brands section.
Insurance Loss/Title Transfer
Vehicle History at a Glance
This box checked to see if there is an insurance total loss or if a title has been transferred to an insurance company name as that event usually signifies that it is a total loss when showing after an accident.
Additional History
Vehicle History at a Glance
This section lists any other significant events that may not be a damage event or brand, but does give additional insights of the vehicle's history. These include abandoned, grey market, lien check, repossessed, theft etc.
Odometer Check
Vehicle History at a Glance
This section verifies if there are rollbacks, rollover or tampering has been reported to AutoCheck from state Division of Motor Vehicles (DMV) or auction sources. AutoCheck also examined the sequence of reported odometer readings to determine if there are any potential discrepancies.
Loan/Lien
Additional History
A loan/lien is the legal right to take and hold or sell the vehicle of a debtor as security or payment for a debt. Normally, a vehicle will have a lien due to a loan or unpaid repair bill against the vehicle. Check with the seller to ensure that the lien has been satisfied.
Duplicate Title
Additional History
The vehicle had a duplicate title issued by the DMV.
Personal Use
Owner Type
This vehicle was driven for personal use.
Accident
Accident / Damage
A state or municipality has reported an accident or collision for this vehicle that may or may not have sustained damage. Not all damage events are reported to AutoCheck and the damage severity of reported events will vary. In all events AutoCheck recommends that prospective vehicle purchasers conduct a detailed vehicle inspection prior to purchase of a pre-owned vehicle.
Excluded / Exempt
Odometer Check
Vehicle is generally exempt from normal/mandatory odometer law for the following reasons:
  1. Vehicle model year is 10 years or older
  2. Gross weight of vehicle over 16000 lbs
  3. Vehicle is not self-propelled
  4. Titled to the manufacturer

Term - State Title Brand

Section Location - Vehicle History at a Glance

Definition - A "branded title" is an official designation assigned by a state agency to associate a particular history with a vehicle. The branding system was put in place to warn potential owners about damage or other alterations to a vehicle that they might otherwise have been unaware of. The brands checked in this section are Fire, Hail, Flood, Junk/Scrapped, Lemon, Salvage, Rebuilt/Rebuildable, Odometer Brands (not actual miles, broken odometer, exceeding mechanical limits, mileage discrepancy, or suspect miles). Please note Grey Market and Insurance Loss or Theft brands are not checked in this box and can be found on other corresponding boxes.

Term - Auction Issue

Section Location - Vehicle History at a Glance

Definition - This section summarizes any issues if reported such as damage condition from seller's disclosure or during the inspection process including required structural damage disclosure, title brands, odometer issues, etc. as outlined by the 2023 National Auto Auction Association Policy.

Term - Accident/Damage Check

Section Location - Vehicle History at a Glance

Definition - This section summarizes vehicle history events that may indicate an accident or damage and associated details such as point of impact, severity or airbag deployed if provided. These damage events will include collision damage information, police-reported accidents, salvage auction, recycler records, crash test vehicles, collision damage claims etc. including our exclusive auction announcements from two major auctions that may include damage events. There is also a clearly delineated section that includes non-collision damage events such as fire, hail or flood. Damage-indicated title brands will be in the state title brands section.

Term - Insurance Loss/Title Transfer

Section Location - Vehicle History at a Glance

Definition - This box checked to see if there is an insurance total loss or if a title has been transferred to an insurance company name as that event usually signifies that it is a total loss when showing after an accident.

Term - Additional History

Section Location - Vehicle History at a Glance

Definition - This section lists any other significant events that may not be a damage event or brand, but does give additional insights of the vehicle's history. These include abandoned, grey market, lien check, repossessed, theft etc.

Term - Odometer Check

Section Location - Vehicle History at a Glance

Definition - This section verifies if there are rollbacks, rollover or tampering has been reported to AutoCheck from state Division of Motor Vehicles (DMV) or auction sources. AutoCheck also examined the sequence of reported odometer readings to determine if there are any potential discrepancies.

Term - Loan/Lien

Section Location - Additional History

Definition - A loan/lien is the legal right to take and hold or sell the vehicle of a debtor as security or payment for a debt. Normally, a vehicle will have a lien due to a loan or unpaid repair bill against the vehicle. Check with the seller to ensure that the lien has been satisfied.

Term - Duplicate Title

Section Location - Additional History

Definition - The vehicle had a duplicate title issued by the DMV.

Term - Personal Use

Section Location - Owner Type

Definition - This vehicle was driven for personal use.

Term - Accident

Section Location - Accident / Damage

Definition - A state or municipality has reported an accident or collision for this vehicle that may or may not have sustained damage. Not all damage events are reported to AutoCheck and the damage severity of reported events will vary. In all events AutoCheck recommends that prospective vehicle purchasers conduct a detailed vehicle inspection prior to purchase of a pre-owned vehicle.

Term - Excluded / Exempt

Section Location - Odometer Check

Definition - Vehicle is generally exempt from normal/mandatory odometer law for the following reasons:
  1. Vehicle model year is 10 years or older
  2. Gross weight of vehicle over 16000 lbs
  3. Vehicle is not self-propelled
  4. Titled to the manufacturer

AutoCheck Terms and Conditions
This report, and any reliance upon it, is subject to AutoCheck Terms and Conditions. If you obtained the report from a lender/dealer, the lender/dealer has been provided with these Terms and Conditions and can share them with you. These AutoCheck Terms and Conditions are also available at any time at www.autocheck.com/terms or by writing to Experian: Experian Automotive C/O AutoCheck Customer Service 1515 E. Woodfield Road, Suite 500, Schaumburg, IL 60173.

Buyback Protection Terms and Conditions
This vehicle (1G1YY26E085107681) qualifies for AutoCheck Buyback Protection. If you obtained the report from a dealer, the dealer has been provided with the terms and can share them with you. These Buyback Protection Terms and Conditions are also available to you at any time at www.autocheck.com/bbpterms or by writing to Experian: Experian Automotive C/O AutoCheckCustomer Service 1515 E. Woodfield Road, Suite 500, Schaumburg, IL 60173.

About AutoCheck
AutoCheck vehicle history reports by Experian Automotive is the leading vehicle history reporting service. With expert data handling, the Experian Automotive database houses over 4 billion records on a half a billion vehicles. Every AutoCheck vehicle history report will give you confidence when buying or selling your next used vehicle, with superior customer service every step of the way.

Patent Notice
Certain aspects of this vehicle history report may be covered by U.S. Patent 8,005,759.